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  • 氨制冷系统泄漏后如何处理?
  • 本站编辑:浙江南化防腐设备有限公司发布日期:2018-05-19 18:27 浏览次数:

近年来,全国各地冷库事故频发,大多冷库事故的产生都是因为泄漏引发的,而解释均是制冷阀件出故障引起氨泄漏。目前氨制冷剂在大型冷库、有广泛应用。以下是详解氨制冷系统泄漏后的正确处置方法。

In recent years, cold storage accidents occur frequently in all parts of the country. Most of the cold storage accidents are caused by ammonia leakage, and the final explanation is that the ammonia leakage caused by the failure of the refrigerating valve parts. At present, ammonia refrigerants are widely used in large cold storage. The following are detailed solutions to the leakage of ammonia refrigeration system.

一、制冷系统泄漏处理

One, leakage treatment of ammonia refrigeration system

1、氨压缩机发生漏氨事故后,先切断压缩机电源,马上关闭排气阀,吸气阀(双级氨压缩机应同时关闭二级排气阀及二级吸气阀)如正在加油,应及时关闭加油阀。

1, ammonia compressor after leakage of ammonia accident, first cut off the compressor power, immediately close the exhaust valve, the suction valve (double stage ammonia compressor should be closed at the same time two level exhaust valve and two suction valve), such as refueling, should be timely closed the refuelling valve.

2、应将机房运行的机器全部停止,操作人员发现压缩机漏氨时立即停机并根据自己所处位置,在关闭事故机时顺便将就近运行的机器断电。

2, the machine room should be completely stopped, the operator found that the compressor leakage of ammonia immediately shut down and according to their position, in the shutdown of the accident machine will be in the near operation of the machine.

3、如漏氨事故较大,无法靠近事故机,应到室外停机,停机后立即关闭所有油氨分离器进气阀及与事故机吸气相连的低压桶出气阀。

3, if the ammonia leakage accident is large, can not be close to the accident machine, should stop outside, shut down immediately after the shutdown of all the oil and ammonia separator intake valve and the low pressure barrel outlet valve connected to the accident machine.

4、迅速开启氨压缩机机房所有的事故排风扇。

4, quickly open all accident fans in ammonia compressor room.

5、在处理事故时,用水管喷浇漏氨部位,使氨与水溶解,注意压缩机电机的防水保护。

5, when dealing with accidents, use water pipes to spray and leak ammonia parts, so that ammonia can be dissolved with water, and pay attention to the waterproofing protection of compressor motors.

二、压力容器漏氨事故处置方法

Two. Treatment of pressure vessel ammonia leakage accident

处理此类事故,原则是首先采取控制,使事故不再扩大,然后采取措施将事故容器与系统断开,关闭设备所有阀门,漏氨严重不能贴近设备时要采取关闭与该设备相联接串通的其它设备阀门,用水淋浇漏氨部位,容器里氨液及时排空处理。属于此类设备有:油氨分离器、冷凝器、高压贮液桶、中冷、排液桶、集油器、放空气器、低压贮液桶等。

In order to deal with such accidents, the principle is to take control first, make the accident no longer expanded, and then take measures to break the accident container and system, close all the equipment of the equipment. When the leakage of ammonia is not close to the equipment, it should be taken to close other equipment valves connected to the equipment, pouring the leakage of ammonia with water and the liquid in the container. Time emptying treatment. Such devices include: Oil ammonia separator, condenser, high pressure liquid storage tank, intercooler, drainage tank, oil collector, air discharge device, low pressure liquid storage tank, etc.

1、油氨分离器漏氨

1. Leakage of ammonia in an oil and ammonia separator

油氨分离器漏氨后,如压缩机正在运行工作中,应立即切断压缩机电源,迅速关闭该油分离器的出气阀、进气阀、供液阀、放油阀及关闭冷凝器进气阀,压缩机至油氨分离器的排气阀。

After the ammonia separator has leakage of ammonia, if the compressor is running, the compressor power should be cut off immediately, and the outgassing valve, the intake valve, the feed valve, the oil discharge valve and the condenser intake valve, and the compressor to the exhaust valve of the oil ammonia separator should be quickly closed.

2、冷凝器漏氨(立式、卧式、蒸发式冷凝器)

2. Condenser ammonia leakage (vertical, horizontal, evaporative condenser)

冷凝器漏氨后,如压缩机处于运行状态,应立即切断压缩机电源,迅速关闭所有高压桶均压阀和其它所有冷凝器均压、放空气器阀,然后关闭冷凝器的进气阀、出液阀。工艺允许时可以对事故冷凝器进行减压。

After the condenser leakage, if the compressor is in the running state, the compressor power should be cut off immediately and all the pressure control valves and all the other condensers are shut down and the air heater valves are closed quickly. Then the intake valve and the outlet valve of the condenser are closed. The accident condenser can be decompressed when the process is permitted.

3、高压贮液桶漏氨

3. Leakage of ammonia in high pressure tank

高压贮液桶漏氨后,立即关闭高压贮液桶的进液阀、均液阀、出液阀、放油阀及其它关联阀门。如氨压缩机处于运行状态,迅速切断压缩机电源,在条件及环境允许时,立即开启与低压容器相联的阀门进行减压、排液、尽量减少氨液外泄损失,当高压贮液桶压力与低压压力一致时,应及时关闭减压排液阀门。

After the high pressure liquid storage tank leaks ammonia, turn off the liquid inlet valve, the liquid valve, the liquid outlet valve, the oil drain valve and other related valves immediately. If the ammonia compressor is in the running state, the compressor power is cut off quickly. When the condition and environment permit, the valve connected with the low pressure vessel is opened immediately to decompress, drain and minimize the leakage of the liquid. When the pressure of the high pressure tank is in accordance with the pressure of the low pressure, the valve should be shut down in time.

4、中间冷却器漏氨

4. Leakage of ammonia in intermediate cooler

中间冷却器漏氨后,当压缩机处于运行状态,应立即切断该机电源,关闭压缩机的一级排气阀、二级吸气阀及与其它设备相通的阀门,同时开启放油阀进行排液放油减压。

When the intermediate cooler leaks ammonia, when the compressor is in operation, the power supply should be cut off immediately, the first stage exhaust valve of the compressor, the two stage suction valve and the valve connected with other equipment should be closed, and the discharge valve is opened to discharge the oil and discharge the oil.

5、低压贮液桶漏氨

5. Leakage of ammonia in a low pressure tank

低压贮液桶漏氨后,当系统压缩机处于运行中,应立即切断压缩机电源,关闭压缩机吸气阀,同时关闭低压贮液桶的进气、出气、均液、放油及其它关联阀门,开启氨泵进液、出液阀及氨泵,将低压贮液桶内氨液送至库房蒸发器内,待低压贮液桶内无液后关闭氨泵进液阀。

After leakage of ammonia in the low pressure storage tank, when the compressor is in operation, the compressor power should be cut off immediately, the suction valve of the compressor is closed, and the intake, outgassing, liquid, oil and other associated valves of the low pressure storage tank are closed, and the ammonia pump inlet liquid, the outlet valve and the ammonia pump are opened, and the ammonia liquid in the low pressure storage tank is sent to the storeroom evaporation. The liquid inlet valve of the ammonia pump is closed after the liquid in the low pressure liquid storage tank is closed.

6、排液桶漏氨

6. Leakage of ammonia in a bucket

排液桶漏氨(在冲霜、加压、排液、放油工作中)时,应立即关闭排液桶的所有与其它设备相连阀门,根据排液桶的液位多少进行处理。如液量较少,开启减压阀进行减压;如液量较多时,应尽快将桶内液体排空,减少氨的外泄量。

When the draining bucket is drained (in the frost, pressure, discharge, and oil discharge), all the valves should be closed immediately to the other equipment, and the liquid level of the bucket should be treated. If the liquid volume is small, the pressure relief valve should be opened for decompression. If the liquid volume is large, the liquid in the pail should be emptied as soon as possible, so as to reduce the leakage of ammonia.

7、集油器漏氨

7. Leakage of ammonia in oil collector

集油器漏氨时,或在放油过程中,都应立即关闭集油器的进油和减压阀。

When the oil collector is running out of ammonia or in the process of discharging oil, the oil inlet and pressure reducing valve of the oil collector should be shut down immediately.

8、放空气器漏氨

8. Leakage of ammonia in air discharge device

放空气器漏氨,应立即关闭混合气体进气阀、供液阀、回流阀、蒸发回气阀。

Air leakage can be immediately closed by mixing gas inlet valve, liquid supply valve, return valve and evaporative return valve.

9、设备玻璃管破裂、油位指示器漏氨

9. Rupture of the glass tube of equipment and leakage of ammonia in the indicator of oil level

设备玻璃管破裂、油位指示器漏氨液时,当上、下侧弹子失灵,应立即关闭批示器上、下侧的弹子角阀,尽早控制住氨液大量外泄。

When the glass tube is broken and the oil level indicator is leaked, when the upper and lower side of the bullet fails, the bullet angle valve on the upper and lower sides of the indicator should be shut down immediately to control the large amount of leakage of the ammonia liquid as soon as possible.

10、氨瓶漏氨

10. Ammonia bottle leakage

氨瓶属于移动式压力容器,氨瓶必须每二年进行一次定期检验,使用12、年应报废

Ammonia bottles belong to mobile pressure vessels. Ammonia bottles must be inspected regularly once every two years. They should be scrapped for 12 years.

发现瓶壁有裂纹、严重腐蚀、凹陷、鼓包、变形等缺陷以及未经定期检验,应禁止使用。在加氨的过程中漏氨,应立即关闭氨瓶出液阀,加氨站的加氨阀,用水淋浇漏氨部位,迅速将氨瓶推离加氨现场。

It is found that cracks on the bottle wall, serious corrosion, depression, bulging, deformation and other defects, and no regular inspection, should be banned. If ammonia is leaked during the process of ammonia injection, the ammonia outlet valve should be closed immediately, the ammonia valve of the ammonia station should be added, and the ammonia leakage site should be leaked with water. The ammonia bottle should be pushed away from the ammonia site immediately.

三、蒸发器漏氨处置方法

Three, the disposal method of evaporator ammonia leakage

库内蒸发器漏氨包括冷风机、墙排管、顶排管等,处理原则:应立即关闭蒸发器供液阀、回气阀、热氨阀、排液阀、并及时将蒸发器内氨液排空。

The leakage of ammonia in the evaporator includes the cold fan, the wall pipe, the top row and so on. The treatment principle: the evaporator supply valve, the air return valve, the hot ammonia valve, the discharge valve and the ammonia liquid in the evaporator should be shut down immediately.

如在冲霜过程中,应立即关闭冲霜热氨阀、关闭排液阀、开启回气阀进行减压。如在库房降温过程中,应立即关闭蒸发器供液阀、氨泵系统停止运行。

For example, in the process of frost, we should immediately turn off the frost hot ammonia valve, close the drain valve and open the return valve for decompression. For example, in the process of cooling down the storeroom, the evaporator liquid supply valve and the ammonia pump system should be shut down immediately.

确定漏氨部位,可做临时性处理,能打管卡的采取管卡紧固,减少氨的外泄量。并开启排风扇强制通风,尽量减少库房的氨浓度。

The location of ammonia leakage can be treated temporarily, and the pipe clamp can be fastened to reduce the leakage of ammonia. And open the exhaust fan forced ventilation to minimize the ammonia concentration in the storeroom.

清除蒸发器内氨,在条件、环境允许情况下,可采取适当的压力,用热氨冲霜的方法,将蒸发器内氨液排回排液桶,减少氨液损失和库房空气污染。

In order to remove the ammonia in the evaporator, under the condition of conditions and environment, the proper pressure can be taken. The ammonia liquid in the evaporator is discharged back to the draining bucket with the method of hot ammonia flushing to reduce the loss of ammonia and the air pollution in the storeroom.

四、阀门漏氨处置方法

Four. Treatment of leakage of ammonia in valves

发现氨阀门漏氨后,应迅速关闭事故阀门两边最近的控制阀,并用堵阀门泄漏专用器具进行堵漏。

It is found that after the ammonia valve leaks ammonia, the nearest control valve on both sides of the accident valve should be shut down quickly, and plugging the special valve with the plugging valve to stop the leakage.

如容器上的阀门漏氨,应关闭泄漏阀前最近的阀门,关闭容器的进液、进气等阀门。在条件、环境允许时,应迅速开启有关阀门,向低压系统进行减压排液。

If the valve on the container leaks ammonia, the nearest valve before the leakage valve should be closed, and the inlet and outlet valves of the container should be closed. When conditions and environment permit, valve should be opened quickly and decompression should be carried out to the low pressure system.

在处理泄漏事故时,应开启排风扇进行通风换气。

When handling leakage accidents, fans should be opened for ventilation and ventilation.

五、管道漏氨处置方法

Five. Treatment of pipeline ammonia leakage

如发现管道漏氨后,应迅速关闭事故管道两边最近的控制阀门,切断氨液的来源。并采取临时打管卡的办法,封堵漏口和裂纹,然后对事故部位抽空。

If the pipeline is found to leak ammonia, the nearest control valve on both sides of the accident pipeline should be shut down and the source of ammonia liquid should be cut off. The method of temporary pipe clamping is adopted to seal the leakage and cracks, and then evacuate the accident area.

1、加氨装置漏氨

1. Ammonia leakage in ammonia plant

在加氨过程中,加氨装置漏氨,应迅速关闭加氨装置最近的阀门和氨瓶的出液阀。

During the ammoniation process, the ammonia valve should be quickly closed and the nearest valve and ammonia outlet valve should be closed.

2、处理漏氨事故时氨的排放处置方法

2, the disposal method of ammonia discharge in the treatment of ammonia leakage accident

如容器设备漏氨,在容器内氨液较多的情况下,将容器内的氨液排放到其它容器内或排放掉。氨液的排放分为系统内排放和向系统外排放。

If the container equipment leaks ammonia, the ammonia in the container must be discharged into other containers or discharged if there is more ammonia in the container. The discharge of ammonia liquor can be divided into emissions within the system and emissions from outside the system.

a、向系统内的排放:一般应采取设备的放油管及排液管排放,将漏氨容器的氨液排至其它压力较低的容器内。

A, discharge to the system: generally, the discharge pipe and drain pipe of the equipment should be discharged, and the ammonia liquid of the ammonia leakage container should be discharged to other low pressure containers.

b、向系统外的排放:在特殊情况下,为了减少事故设备的氨液外泄,避免伤亡事故发生,将氨液通过串联设备放油管与耐压胶皮管放入水池中,以保证安全。在向外界排放氨液或氨气时,要注意阀门不要开的过大、过猛、防止胶管连接处脱落,造成意外事故发生。

B, out of the system emissions: in special cases, in order to reduce the leakage of ammonia liquid in the accident equipment and avoid casualty accidents, the ammonia liquid is put into the pool through the series equipment and the pressure resistant rubber pipe to ensure the safety. When discharging ammonia or ammonia to the outside world, we should pay attention to the oversize and excessive opening of the valve and prevent the connection of the hose from falling off, resulting in an accident.

含氨废气处理一